List of political parties in Somalia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article lists political parties in Somalia. In 2017 an independent electoral commission was inaugurated with a mandate to oversee the process of registration of political parties in the country, according to Article 47 of the Federal Provisional Constitution which provides for an electoral system. The system guarantees participation of every individual who subscribes to a political party.[1] NIEC has registered over 57 political parties, most of which still operate from outside the country for security reasons.

In October 2019 six parties joined together to form the Forum for National Parties, an alliance founded by former president Sharif Sheikh Ahmed which has come together to address the political and security issues faced by Somalia.[2] The alliance includes Himilo Qaran party, led by former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, and Peace and Development Party led by former President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. Other key leaders joining the coalition include Ilays party leader Abdulkadir Osoble, former South West President Sharif Hassan and former defense minister Mohamed Abdi, the first interim president of Azania.

Overview and background[edit]

During the civilian administration which existed prior to the seizure of power by the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) in 1969, there were a number of local political parties. Most notable of these early institutions was the Somali Youth League, the nation's first political organization. Upon assuming office, the SRC (led by Siad Barre) outlawed all extant political parties,[3] and established the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party to advocate a form of scientific socialism inspired by Maoist China and the Soviet Union.[4] Following the outbreak of the civil war in 1991 that saw the ouster of the Barre regime, many of the few remaining political parties gave way to autonomous or semi-autonomous regional states, or fragmented into feuding militia groups. After several unsuccessful national reconciliation efforts, a Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in 2000 with a five-year mandate leading toward the establishment of a new constitution and a transition to a representative government.[5] The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate. It represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.[6]

On 29 May 2017, the Somali Political Parties Registration Office was established in Mogadishu. The office's job is to bring the country to the party system and remove it from the current 4.5 clan power-sharing system.[7][8] On 3 December 2017, the Independent Electoral Commission began registering political parties in Somalia for the first time in 50 years.[9]

Parties[edit]

7th President of Somalia Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, founder and leader of Himilo Qaran
8th President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, founder and chairman of the Peace and Development Party
9th President of Somalia Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, founder and Secretary-General of Tayo

Current[edit]

As of 2020, the National Independent Electoral Commission (NIEC) has registered a total of 106 parties.[10]

Party Ideology Note
CAHDİ Party Liberalism
Federalism
Member of the Liberal International
Cosmopolitan Democratic Party Liberalism Party led by women
Daljir Party Liberalism
Cultural conservatism
Islamic democracy
Former islamist party
Democratic Party of Somalia Nationalism Founded by the son of Siad Barre
Forum for National Parties Islamic democracy Political alliance
Haldoor Party Big tent Supports the strengthening of the government
Himilo Qaran Islamic democracy Member of the Forum for National Parties
Peace and Development Party Islamic democracy Party with ties to the Muslim Brotherhood
Qaransoor Party Reformism New political party
Social Justice Party Social democracy Founded by former Mayor of Mogadishu
Somali Patriotic Movement Anti-communism Also operates as a paramilitary organisation
Somalia Green Party Green politics Member of the Green Parties of Africa

Local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa

Somali Labour Party Social democracy Founded in Toronto
Somali Social Unity Party Social democracy Operates both in Somalia and abroad
Nabad iyo Nolol Liberalism
Civic nationalism
Progressivism
Environmentalism
Party of current president[citation needed]
Union for Peace and Development Party Conservatism
Islamic democracy
Nationalism
Member of the Forum for National Parties
Wadajir Party Democratic socialism
Progressivism
Reformism
Formed by a former minister

Former[edit]

Name Ideology Note
Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia Islamic democracy Formed after dissolution of Islamic Courts Union
Greater Somalia League Somali nationalism
Greater Somalia
Formed by dissidents of the Somali Youth League
Somali African National Union Somali nationalism Ally of the Somali Youth League
Somali National Alliance Hawiye's interests
Anti-communism
Political alliance
Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism
Marxism–Leninism
Pan-Somalism
Scientific socialism
Somali nationalism
Party of Siad Barre
Somali Youth League Somali nationalism First party in Somalia
United Somali Congress Anti-communism Rebel organisation
United Somali Parliamentarians Big tent Group of parliamentarians in the transitional parliament
Work and Socialism Party Socialism Small leftist party

Puntland[edit]

As of May 2020, there are 17 registered political parties in Puntland.[11]

Current parties of Puntland
Name Ideology Note
Horseed Conservatism First political party in Puntland
Justice and Equality Islamic democracy

Social conservatism

New political organisation
Kaah Democracy Ruling party
Ururka Dadka Puntland Democracy Previously the ruling party

Somaliland (disputed entity)[edit]

Current parties of Somaliland
Name Ideology Seats
For Justice and Development Democratic socialism
Social democracy
21 / 82
Kulmiye Social liberalism
30 / 82
Waddani Nationalism
Populism
Islamic democracy
31 / 82

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SOMALIA'S NATIONAL INDEPENDENT ELECTORAL COMMISSION SETS UP OFFICE OF REGISTRAR OF POLITICAL PARTIES". UNSOM. 23 May 2017.
  2. ^ "In Somalias nascent democracy clans could still be needed". Garowe Online. 8 November 2019.
  3. ^ Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved October 21, 2009CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link).
  4. ^ Peter John de la Fosse Wiles, The New Communist Third World: an essay in political economy, (Taylor & Francis: 1982), p. 279 ISBN 0-7099-2709-6.
  5. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  6. ^ "Somalia: UN Envoy Says Inauguration of New Parliament in Somalia 'Historic Moment'". Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  7. ^ "Xafiiska Diiwaangelinta Xisbiyada Siyaasadeed oo laga furay Muqdisho". BBC News Somali (in Somali). 2017-05-29. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  8. ^ "Somalia sets up office to register political parties - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  9. ^ "Somalia: 7 political parties created for first time in 50 years". Middle East Monitor. 2017-12-04. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  10. ^ "Registered Political Parties". NIEC. 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  11. ^ "Akhriso magacyada ururada siyaasadeed ee Puntland iska diiwaan galiyey (muuqaal) | Puntlandes.com". Retrieved 2020-12-02.