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Garcinia gummi-gutta

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Garcinia gummi-gutta
കുടപ്പുളി.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Genus: Garcinia
Species:
G. gummi-gutta
Binomial name
Garcinia gummi-gutta
Synonyms[1]
  • Cambogia binucao Blanco
  • Cambogia gemmi-gutta L.
  • Cambogia solitaria Stokes
  • Garcinia affinis Wight & Arn.
  • Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.
  • Garcinia sulcata Stokes

Garcinia gummi-gutta is a tropical species of Garcinia native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.[1][2] Common names include Garcinia cambogia (a former scientific name), as well as brindle berry, and Malabar tamarind.[3] The fruit looks like a small pumpkin and is green to pale yellow in color.[4]

Although it has received considerable media attention purporting its effects on weight loss, there are reports of liver toxicity associated with the Hydroxycut commercial preparation containing the fruit extract, with clinical evidence indicating it has no significant effect on weight loss.[3][4][5]

Cultivation

In Kerala, India
Ripe fruit

Garcinia gummi-gutta is grown for its fruit in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Garcinia gummi-gutta is one of several closely related Garcinia species from the plant family Clusiaceae.[1][2] With thin skin and deep vertical lobes, the fruit of G. gummi-gutta and related species range from about the size of an orange to that of a grapefruit; G. gummi-gutta looks more like a small yellowish, greenish, or sometimes reddish pumpkin.[6] The color can vary considerably. When the rinds are dried and cured in preparation for storage and extraction, they are dark brown or black in color.[citation needed]

Phytochemicals

Although few high-quality studies have been done to define the composition of the fruit, its phytochemical content includes hydroxycitric acid which is extractable and developed as a dietary supplement.[4][5][7] Other compounds identified in the fruit include the polyphenols, luteolin, and kaempferol.[8]

Common names

In the Malabar Coast, it is known as kudam puli and in Tamil speaking areas of Sri Lanka and India, it is called goraka.[9][10]

Weight loss claims

In late 2012, a United States celebrity doctor, Dr. Oz, promoted Garcinia cambogia extract as "an exciting breakthrough in natural weight loss".[11][12] Dr. Oz's endorsements of dietary supplements having no or little scientific evidence of efficacy have often led to a substantial increase in consumer purchases of the promoted products.[12]

While it has received considerable media attention purporting impact on weight loss, the evidence for Garcinia cambogia supports no clear effect,[3][4][13][14] while gastrointestinal adverse events were two-fold more common over the placebo in a 2011 meta-analysis, indicating the extract may be unsafe for human consumption.[4][5] Adverse events associated with use of such supplements ("side effects") — especially, liver toxicity, as well as gastrointestinal issues — led to one preparation being withdrawn from the market.[15]

Adverse effects

In addition to possible liver damage, hydroxycitric acid can cause dry mouth, nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort, and headaches.[4][16]

Drug interactions

There is potential for Garcinia cambogia to interfere with prescription medications, including those used to treat people with diabetes, asthma, and clotting disorders.[4]

Culinary

When the fruit is sun dried for several days, it becomes black with a shrivelled body

Garcinia gummi-gutta is used in cooking, including in the preparation of curries to add a sour flavor.[4] The fruit rind and extracts of Garcinia species are used in many traditional recipes used in food preparation in Southeast Asian countries.[3][17] In the Indian Ayurvedic medicine, "sour" flavors are said to activate digestion. The extract and rind of G. gummi-gutta is a curry condiment in India.[17][18][19] It is an essential souring ingredient in the southern Thai variant of kaeng som, a sour curry.[20][21]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) N.Robson". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 1 June 2013 – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ a b "Garcinia gummi-gutta". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "Garcinia cambogia". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 1 December 202. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Garcinia cambogia". Drugs.com. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard (2011). "The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials". Journal of Obesity. 2011 (December 14): 509038. doi:10.1155/2011/509038. PMC 3010674. PMID 21197150.
  6. ^ "Fruit yellowish or reddish, size of an orange having six or eight deep longitudinal grooves in its fleshy pericarp. Pulp acid of a pleasant flavor. It is dried among the Singalese who use it in curries." Uphof, J.C. Th. (1968).
  7. ^ Yamada T, Hida H, Yamada Y (2007). "Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 75 (5): 977–82. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0962-4. PMID 17476502.
  8. ^ Sulaiman, C. T; Balachandran, I (2017). "LC/MS characterization of phenolic antioxidants of Brindle berry (Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robson)". Natural Product Research. 31 (10): 1191–1194. doi:10.1080/14786419.2016.1224871. PMID 27583573.
  9. ^ Sarip, Nur Aqilah; Aminudin, Nurul Iman; Danial, Wan Hazman (12 September 2021). "Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using Garcinia extracts: a review". Environmental Chemistry Letters: 1. doi:10.1007/s10311-021-01319-3.
  10. ^ Pramanik, Malay; Diwakar, Atul Kumar; Dash, Poli; Szabo, Sylvia; Pal, Indrajit (1 April 2021). "Conservation planning of cash crops species (Garcinia gummi-gutta) under current and future climate in the Western Ghats, India". Environment, Development and Sustainability. 23 (4): 1. doi:10.1007/s10668-020-00819-6.
  11. ^ The Dr. Oz Show (November 5, 2012). Garcinia Cambogia: The Newest, Fastest Fat-Buster Archived 2014-04-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b Christensen, Jen; Wilson Jacque (19 June 2014). "Congressional hearing investigates Dr. Oz 'miracle' weight loss claims". CNN Health. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  13. ^ Heymsfield, S. B.; Allison, D. B.; Vasselli, J. R.; Pietrobelli, A.; Greenfield, D.; Nunez, C. (1998). "Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent: A Randomized Controlled Trial". J. Am. Med. Assoc. 280 (18): 1596–1600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596. PMID 9820262.
  14. ^ Crescioli, Giada; Lombardi, Niccolò; Bettiol, Alessandra; Marconi, Ettore; Risaliti, Filippo; Bertoni, Michele; Menniti Ippolito, Francesca; Maggini, Valentina; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Vannacci, Alfredo (2018-05-25). "Acute liver injury following Garcinia cambogia weight-loss supplementation: case series and literature review". Internal and Emergency Medicine. 13 (6): 857–872. doi:10.1007/s11739-018-1880-4. ISSN 1828-0447.
  15. ^ Lobb, A. (2009). "Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (14): 1786–1787. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1786. PMC 2668789. PMID 19360927.
  16. ^ Soni, MG (2004). "Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt". Food Chem Toxicol. 42 (9): 1513–29. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.04.014. PMID 15234082.
  17. ^ a b "The acid rinds of the ripe fruit are eaten,." Drury, Heber (1873). "Garcinia gambogia (Desrous) N. 0. Clusiaceae". The Useful Plants of India, second edition. London: William H. Allen & Co. p. 220.
  18. ^ "G. Gummi-Gutta (Garcinia Cambogia) – An Ancient Indian Curry Condiment". US Premium Garcinia Cambogia. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  19. ^ "Kudampuli meencurry (fish curry with Malabar tamarind)". Secret Indian Recipe. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Kaeng Som Kung (Sour Curry with Shrimp)". Saveur. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  21. ^ "Gaeng Som Recipe, Thai Sour Curry Recipe of Shrimp, Okra and Roselle Leaves". Thai Food Master. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2015.